The social construction of technological systems; New directions in the sociology and history of technology

a. "[A]n artefact- either physical or non-physical- functioning as a component in a system interacts with other artefacts, all of which contribute directly or through another component to a common system goal. If a component is removed from its system or if its characteristics change, the other artefacts in the system bill alter characteristics accordingly" (Hughes.T)

b. "[F]irst, the engineers involved in the design and development of a technological system, particularly when radical innovations are involved, must permanently combine scientific and technical analyses with sociological analyses. The proposed associations are heterogeneous from the start of the process. The concept of actor-network can be used to explain both the first stages of the invention and the gradual institutionalization of the market sometimes created as a result without distinguishing between successive phases. It is applicable to the whole process because it encompasses and describes not only alliances and interactions that occur at a given time but also any changes and development that occur subsequently" (Callon. M)

c."[T]he question of how to distinguish science from Technology. We think that it is rather unfruitful to make such a prior distinction. Instead, it seems worthwhile to start with commons notions of Science and Technology and to study them in an integrated way, as we have proposed"(Pinch.J.Trevor, Bijker.E.Weibe)

Analytic (Question)





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